A standard road bike usually have these parts, in pictures. (I grabbed the images of the parts online. What you’ll end up with are probably a bit different.)
This may seem like a long list, unless you’re comparing it with the parts list of a car. But while the list may seem daunting, a lot of parts are usually sold together. For example, the frame (#1) and fork (#2) is usually sold as a “frameset”. If you buy it online, some vendors will even throw in the headset (#3), seatpost (#8) and/or seatpost clamp (#9) as well. In rare cases, I have even seen packages that includes the stem (#5) and handlebar (#6), or with carbon water bottle cages (#24). As for the mechanical components, they can be sold as a “groupset” which usually include the shifters (#15), derailleurs (#16), brakes (#17), and may also include the bottom bracket (#18), crankset (#19), cassette (#20) and chain (#21) as well. Of course, you can always buy them separately if you have the time…or if you can find at a cheaper price.